- How do I request an information packet?
- What are the SLIS admission requirements?
- What are the SLIS application requirements?
- Do I need to take the GRE?
- What is the minimum grade point average to get into the program?
- Do international students have to take the TOEFL Exam?
- When is the application deadline?
- How long until I find out if I've been accepted?
- How do I find out my admissions status?
- I'm a prospective student who has not yet been admitted, but I would like to speak to an advisor. Who do I contact?
- Is orientation attendance required for everyone?
- What are the dates for registration?
- When is tuition due?
- How much is tuition?
- Do online students pay the omnibus fee?
- I'm an Ontario/Ohio resident - do I pay regular Michigan tuition?
- What are the drop dates for this semester?
- What options are available for financial aid?
- The class I need to register for is closed. Is there any possible way for me to add into this class?
- How many credit hours do I need to be considered a full-time student?
- I was unable to get into a class--will I be able to register next semester? What do I need to do?
- I applied late. Can I get approved for temporary enrollment or can I get a Permit to Register?
- How do I adjust the credit hours for a 2/3 credit hour practicum?
- Who do I notify if my name or address changes?
- How many credits are required for the Master of Library and Information Science?
- What are the requirements for the Certificate in Archival Administration?
- What are the requirements for School Library Media Endorsement?
- How many credits can I transfer?
- Can undergraduate credits be used toward the MLIS degree?
- What is a Plan of Work?
- What is the job outlook for someone with an MLIS? What can you do with a MLIS?
- What are the faculty members' areas of interest? Who advises for specific specializations?
- What are the SLIS Office hours?
- Where is the School of Library and Information Science located?
- What’s the difference between the traditional and the online MLIS options?
- Can I dual enroll in the traditional and online program?
- Can I switch the format of my program?
- Can traditional students take online classes?
- Can international students take online courses?
- How does an online course work?
- Can all courses for the MLIS degree be taken online?
- Who teaches online courses?
- How do I find out which classes are offered online?
- Is the online program accredited?
- When can I apply for the online program?
- Are there technology requirements for students?
- Will online students interact with on-campus students?
- What are the tuition rates and fees for the online program?
- What is entailed in a practicum course?
- When may I apply for a practicum?
- May I take a practicum anytime during my work on my degree?
- May I complete my practicum where I currently work or have worked?
- May I get paid for the practicum?
- Does the practicum site need to have a professional librarian on duty to provide supervision?
- Since I am currently working, I would like to schedule my practicum hours in the evening and on weekends.
- May a practicum be spread over two semesters?
- May two practica be selected as a part of a student's course work?
- Are there preferred semesters to take a practicum?
- When are the seminars?
- Where can I get additional information about the practicum?
Note: Only students who began the MLIS degree in Fall 2009 (September 2009) or after are required to submit an e-portfolio.
- Must the e-portfolio be housed on the WSU-SLIS portfolio server?
- What do I put into my portfolio if I am taking a core class the semester I plan to graduate and we have not completed anything significant by the time the portfolio is due?
- What are the requirements, in terms of content, for the evaluative statements that are to accompany each representative course item in the portfolio?
- What are “certificate requirements” as they apply to the e-portfolio?
- Can courses taken towards a certificate be used for the e-portfolio?
- May additional work beyond the requirements be presented in the portfolio?
- How is the final e-portfolio submitted?
- What is the “intent to submit a portfolio”?
- What happens if I don’t pass and I am asked to resubmit my portfolio?
- What if I have transfer courses or core courses that I took, not at Wayne State. Can these be included in the e-portfolio?
- Can I talk about other courses in my reflective essay, even if I don’t have representative samples in the e-portfolio?
- What do I do with my e-portfolio when I graduate? Can I still access and use it?
- How do I back up my e-portfolio so that I can use it beyond Wayne State University?
- Can I use group work as an artifact for my e-portfolio?
- What are the deadlines for e-portfolios for Spring/Summer?
- What are housing options as a Wayne State Student?
- Where can I get information regarding parking issues?
- Where can I get a map of campus parking lots?
Request an information packet online.
Admission Requirements www.slis.wayne.edu/admissions/index.php
Admission to SLIS is contingent upon admission to the Graduate School; for requirements, please refer to the In addition, Master of Library and Information Science applicants must satisfy the following criteria:
- Possess an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university with a balance of study consisting of at least forty-five credits of course work in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
- Have an undergraduate grade point average of 3.00 or better or possess another degree beyond the bachelor’s degree. Applicants with an undergraduate grade point average between 2.25 and 2.99 can satisfy this requirement by one of the alternative methods listed below.
- Submit evidence of post-baccalaureate graduate course work completed with a grade point average of 3.0 or better in a minimum of 12 graduate credits
- Submit an official score report for either of the following standardized tests taken within the last five years
- Graduate Record Examination (GRE): official score report for the GRE taken within the last five years must indicate a total score of 950 on the combined verbal and quantitative portions. The verbal portion must have a score of at least 500. You may register online at the ETS website. Wayne State University’s institution code is 1898.
- Miller Analogies Test (MAT): official score report for tests taken within the last five years must indicate a score of at least 410. For MAT information and testing center locations go to Miller Analogies website.
- Submit a goals statement reflecting relevant personal and academic background and experience. Please limit your statement to 250 words.
- Submit a current resume or curriculum vitae.
- Meet the SLIS Program Technology Requirements.
How to Apply to the WSU School of Library and Information Science:
- Complete the Graduate Admissions Application form online.
- Compose a personal statement of 250-500 words and include a current resume or curriculum vitae.
These materials should be uploaded to your online application. Please download the Personal Statement form to access the personal statement guidelines.
- Request official transcripts from each university you attended and have them sent directly to:
Office of Graduate Admissions
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI 48202, USA
If you GPA is between 2.25 and 2.99, taking the GRE or MAT is required if you do not possess another degree beyond the bachelor's degree or if you have not completed 12 post-baccalauraete credits with a minimum 3.0 GPA. See admissions requirements.
3.0 GPA. See admission requirement.
Yes, all applicants are required to submit evidence of proficiency in English to the Office of Graduate Admissions. A minimum score of 550 is required on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), or a score of 85 is required on the Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) or a minimum score of 6.5 is required on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). If taking the computer-based TOEFL, a minimum score of 213 is required.
The following applicants are exempt from taking the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) test, or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS):
Further information for international students can be found on the website for the Office of International Students.
- International students whose native language is English
- Applicants who have completed all their secondary or postsecondary education in the United States, Canada, or other English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the West Indies, and other countries specified by the Wayne State University Office of University Admissions
- Applicants whose native language is not English, but who have been instructed in the English language, are not exempt from the TOEFL/MELAB/IELTS requirements
You can find more information in our Admissions Process page.
Application Dates for Admission*
For Fall classes beginning early September by July 1
For Winter classes beginning early January by October 1
For Spring classes beginning early May by March 15
For international students, the application form and all transcripts and documents must be on file in the Graduate Admissions Office at least four months before the start of the term in which the applicant plans to begin graduate studies.
For additional information on Graduate School Admission, refer to the Wayne State University Graduate Bulletin.
*These application dates are set by the Graduate School. The LIS Program can only process a finite number of new students per semester. Keep in mind that having your application into the WSU Graduate School by the submission date does not guarantee a spot in the SLIS for that particular semester. Please plan accordingly.
4-6 weeks for regular domestic applications
8-12 weeks for international applications
As confirmation that their application has been received, WSU's division of C&IT will send all applicants a personalized WSU Access ID and password. If you have access to the Internet, you can use this Access ID and password to log into Pipeline to track the status of your application materials, to see that all transcripts have been received, checks cashed, etc.
If you do not have access to the Internet, you can call Graduate Enrollment Services at 313.577-GRAD (4723)
to check the status of your application. Or, you can call the
SLIS office at 313.577.1825.
I'm a prospective student who has not yet been admitted, but I would like to speak to an advisor. Who do I contact?
Please visit our listing of faculty and staff. The SLIS staff is available to answer any general questions you may have about the School. Please call the SLIS Main Office at (313) 577-1825 or toll-free (877) 263-2665. Prospective students may also contact Matt Fredericks, Academic Services Officer with SLIS. He can be reached at email@example.com or 313-577-2446.
Prospective students with questions about the program are advised to attend one of our Prospective Student Information Meetings. For schedules of upcoming information meetings please visit our Information Meeting page.
Orientation is required for all students before they start the MLIS program. The school believes that it is absolutely critical that students come together to meet each other as well as the faculty and staff. The initial learning activities planned are important in making your first weeks as a student in the School as productive and stress-free as possible and to help you establish valuable personal connections that will carry you through the School and beyond. The School believes that these valuable connections are too important to miss. No exceptions are given -- regardless of distance from campus. For more information on orientation, please visit our Orientation page.
Financial Aid, Registration and Student Records
The registration calendar can be found on the website for the Office of Registrar.
Tuition due dates can be found in the registration calendar.
General information about tuition can be found in the Records and Registration website.
A current tuition chart can be found at the Records and Registration Tuition and Fees page.
Yes, the omnibus fee goes toward supporting the technology infrastructure of the School. Although the School does have some computers and equipment available for on-campus classes and students, the bulk of the money goes to support the infrastructure necessary to administer our distance learning program.
Ohio/Ontario Good Neighbor Policy
Under the Wayne State University "Good Neighbor" program, residents of Fulton, Lucas, Ottawa, and Williams counties in Ohio or Ontario, Canada, who enroll in WSU academic programs, excluding the MD program, will have the non-resident portion of fees waived. Please direct questions concerning the WSU "Good Neighbor" program to 1-877-WSU-INFO [1-877-978-4636].
Dates concerning dropping classes can be found on the registration calendar.
The Office of Scholarships and Financial Aid (OSFA) at Wayne State University annually administers financial aid funds from federal, state, university and private sources. Some financial aid programs are need-based, other programs are non-need based, and awards are given in recognition of special skills, talents, or academic ability. Financial Aid at Wayne State is awarded in the form of a "package" and generally consists of four types of aid: grants, scholarship, loans, and employment.
FAQ's about applying for Financial Aid can be found here.
Financial assistance may be available to new and continuing students in the Library and Information Science Program. Scholarships, graduate student assistantships, work-study opportunities, and Wayne State University student loans are available. Please note that international students are not eligible for financial aid but may be eligible for program scholarships or assistantships.
For the list of SLIS Scholarships and an application form please visit the Scholarships and Financial Aid page.
For information on student employment and graduate student assistantships please visit our Student Employment page.
The class I need to register for is closed. Is there any possible way for me to add into this class?
Each semester the SLIS compiles a wait list for its full classes. Students will be able to sign-up online when the waitlist is posted to the the SLIS listserv, SLISINF.
The University considers a program of eight graduate credits per semester to be full-time study.
If a student is unable to register for classes during the semester for which he/she applied he/she must fill out a Graduate Renewal Application.
No. The SLIS does not approve Permits to Register. You must be fully admitted to the School in order to register for classes.
Students can change the number of credits for variable credit hour courses in Pipeline. If you want to increase the number of credits, click on the Cred column link. This will take you to the Change Class Options screen. Enter the number of credits and click on the Submit Changes button. To view the changes on your current schedule, click on the Return to Add/Drop Classes Menu.
When students’ personal information changes, they should notify the school office as soon as possible. Students should fill out the name/address change form and submit it to the SLIS office located in room 314 Kresge Library, email it to firstname.lastname@example.org or fax it to 313-577-7563. Address changes can also be completed by logging into Pipeline. Click on the Student Tab and make changes under the View Personal Information link. Students should still notify the LIS office of any changes they make. Name changes will require students to bring their new social security card to the Student Records office at 5057 Woodward Ave.
SLIS and Degree Information
Master of Library and Information Science http://www.slis.wayne.edu/programs/mlis.php
The Master of Library and Information Science degree requires a minimum of thirty-six (36) graduate level credits distributed as follows: eighteen (18) credit hours in the Library and Information Science professional core and a minimum of eighteen (18) credit hours in an area of professional specialization. A maximum of six (6) credit hours in courses outside the SLIS may be accepted as cognates.
LIS 6010 Introduction to the Information Profession
LIS 6080 Information Technology
LIS 6120 Access to Information
LIS 6210 Organization of Knowledge
LIS 7040 Library Administration and Management
LIS 7310 School Library Media Programs
(Students in the School Library Media Specialization are required to complete LIS 7310 instead of LIS 7040.)
LIS 7996 Research in Library and Information Science
All core/required classes are 3 credit hours.
Students choose elective classes in consultation with their faculty advisor. See also: Areas of Interest and Suggested Classes.
Graduate Certificate in Archival Administration http://www.slis.wayne.edu/programs/gcaa.php
The Graduate Certificate in Archival Administration was established both for individuals entering the archival profession and for those with experience in the field. Students working concurrently on the MLIS degree and the Certificate in Archival Administration are required to complete an additional six (6) credits beyond the 36 required for the MLIS degree. For additional information, students are referred to the Degree and Certificate Requirements regulations as stated in the Wayne State University Graduate Bulletin
Students must complete fifteen (15) credits selected from the following:
LIS 7710 Archival Administration
LIS 7685 Practicum in Archives - Prerequisite LIS 7710 plus 9 AAC hours
LIS 6780 Records Management
LIS 7730 Administration of Visual Collections
LIS 7740 Archives & Libraries in the Digital World
LIS 7750 Introduction to Archival & Library Conservation
LIS 7770 Oral History
LIS 7780 Electronic Archives
LIS 7885 Administration of Historical Agencies
Requirements for school library media (SLM) endorsement are set by the State of Michigan. The SLIS ensures that completed coursework meets state requirements. Please note that the SLIS does not determine what those requirements are. More information is available here.
- Michigan Teaching Certificate - Students seeking endorsement must have a valid Michigan teaching certificate in order to be endorsed as a school library media specialist in the State of Michigan.
- Michigan Test for Teacher Certification - Students must pass the library media subject exam portion of the Michigan Test for Teacher Certification (MTTC) before they can become endorsed.
It is possible to transfer up to a maximum of six credits from another institution, however, the courses must meet certain criteria and must be approved by your faculty advisor (assigned upon admission).
The criteria are:
For more specific information about transfer credits, see the Wayne State University Graduate Bulletin.
- the credit is certified as graduate-level and is from an accredited graduate institution
- the grade is at least a B or higher
- the course did not provide credit toward a previous degree
- the credit was earned within the six-year time limit of the master's degree
- the credit is beyond the 24-credit hours required in residence at WSU
- the credit is approved as appropriate to the student's degree program by his/her advisor
- a syllabus of the course to be transferred must be submitted to the LIS Program
Petition for Transfer of Graduate Credit Form
No, under no circumstances may undergraduate credits be used toward this graduate degree. Transfer credits must be certified as graduate level on an official transcript from an accredited institution.
The Plan of Work (POW) serves as a statement of the student's academic objectives and constitutes a contract between the student and the university. Each student must file a POW with the SLIS upon completion of the first nine (9) hours of course work. The POW should be completed with the guidance and direction of the student's faculty advisor. It is the student's responsibility to draft a POW and to obtain the faculty advisor's approval and signature. Students must file a POW in the required time period or an academic hold will be placed preventing further registration. Following SLIS approval of the POW, notice of candidacy status is forwarded to WSU Student Records and the completed document is retained in the student's folder in the SLIS files. This document becomes the official list of courses to be completed satisfactorily by the student for fulfillment of the requirements for the MLIS degree.
Any change in a student's course planning requires that a Change in Plan of Work (CPOW) form be completed in consultation with the faculty advisor prior to registration. Deviation from the POW without notification of change can result in delayed graduation. Plan of Work (POW) and Change in Plan of Work (CPOW) forms can be found at our Forms page.
Engaged in challenging careers, qualified information professionals are working in varied settings all over the globe. "Librarians held about 158,000 jobs in 2006. Most worked in school and academic libraries, but more than one-fourth worked in public libraries. The remainder worked in special libraries or as information professionals for companies and other organizations." (Occupational Outlook Handbook)
With more than 50 percent of today's gross national product related to the management of information, career opportunities for individuals trained in library and information science are abundant and diverse.
In this new century and beyond, information professionals will have a wider than ever choice of where and how to apply their knowledge and abilities. Exciting career opportunities exist in both the public and private sectors, including business, law, medicine, publishing, government, archives and museums, communications and media, engineering, academic environments, and pre K-12 education. Check the Library Journal October 15 issue of each year to review annual statistics on LIS placements.
See the faculty directory.
The School of Library and Information Science main office hours are:
Monday - Friday: 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Faculty have varying office hours each semester. To schedule an appointment with a faculty member, please contact the main office at 313-577-1825 or toll-free at 1-877-263-2665. You may also visit the main office at 106 Kresge Library.
Location, Driving Directions and Parking
The School of Library and Information Science main office is located in the Purdy/Kresge Library, Room 314.4 Kresge. Administrative offices are located in 106 Kresge. SLIS classrooms are also located in Purdy/Kresge Library.
For driving directions to the Purdy/Kresge Library, please visit our Visiting Us page.
Online Program/Online Courses
The traditional program is for local students who want to take most or all of their courses face-to-face or who want courses (such as Archives) that are not available in an online format. The online option is designed for students who live too far from campus to attend face-to-face classes or who like the convenience that online courses provide. All students in the online program qualify for in-state tuition so this option makes an MLIS from Wayne State an affordable degree for any student.
No, students apply and are admitted to only one program. Students must choose traditional OR online. Students may request to change programs by completing the Change of Status form.
Yes, students may request to change the format of their program by completing the Change of Status form. The requested change will be reviewed by the program director and is not automatically granted. Note: Students are only allowed to switch once.
Yes, traditional students can take online classes on a space available basis. In fact, many of the students enrolled in online classes are traditional students. It’s just that online students – because they cannot take traditional classes – get priority enrollment in online courses.
International students not enrolled in the fully online program are restricted to one online class per semester to maintain their F1 Visas. More information is available through the Office of International Students and Scholars.
Faculty use Blackboard, a course management tool, for posting lectures and assignments. Students participate by contributing to discussion boards, chat rooms and/or email conversations. Videos of lectures may be available through Mediasite and/or Blackboard. Assignments are submitted electronically through email, websites and Blackboard submission tools.
Yes, if you are enrolled in the online program, the MLIS degree can be obtained completely online. Traditional students may have the opportunity to take online courses, but online course availability is not guaranteed.
Both full-time and adjunct faculty lead our online courses. With a network of over 80 adjunct faculty members, the SLIS utilizes the knowledge and practical experience of LIS subject specialists working in the field nationwide.
Please refer to the Class Schedules. Course offerings are divided between online, on-campus and distance sites.
Yes, both the traditional and online MLIS programs are accredited by the American Library Association (ALA).
Applications for the online program are accepted during Fall, Winter and Spring/Summer semesters. Students are admitted to the program on a rolling basis. Please visit our Admission Process page for deadlines and requirements.
Yes; you can find the complete details of the program’s technology requirements at our Technology Requirements page.
Yes! First, online students will have the opportunity to meet on-campus students during New MLIS Student Orientation. In addition, many student associations conduct web-based meetings so that online students can participate in the activities of the WSU chapters of LIS professional associations.
Online students pay the same tuition and fee rates as Michigan residents. Please visit our Tuition and Fees page for current rates.
The 3 credit practicum requires a minimum of 135 hours on-site. In addition, students are also required to attend 3 seminars, maintain a journal, do an analysis of their experience and are responsible to see that the evaluation from the practicum institution is sent to the Practicum Supervisor.
The practicum application deadlines are as follows:
- Fall Semester: June 1
- Winter Semester: October 1
- Spring/Summer Semester: February 1
Students must have completed a minimum of 24 hours, which includes LIS 6010, 6080, 6120, 6210 and 7040. Relevant electives should be selected to prepare you for the type of practicum experience you are seeking.
Students are not placed where they are working or have worked or volunteered. This avoids conflicts of interest.
Students may not receive any payment while they are completing coursework for the practicum for credit.
The practicum site must provide professional oversight.
Since I am currently working, I would like to schedule my practicum hours in the evening and on weekends.
It is best when placements are to be scheduled to provide full exposure to the full working week, days, nights, and weekends.
Only in special and unusual circumstances will permission be granted to spread the practicum over two semesters (i.e. such as wanting to start the practicum in November and finishing early February).
The answer is “No” except for the following two exceptions:
If a student is enrolled in the Archival Administration Certificate Program, a second non-archival practicum maybe approved.
If a student is taking more than 36 hours for their master’s degree, a second practicum maybe approved.
Students who want to do reference work in an academic library should be aware that for a quality experience the practicum should be taken in either the fall or winter semesters. The reference desk from late May on sees little reference activity and does not allow for a quality experience.
Dates for the seminars appear on the Schedule of classes as a footnote Depending on enrollment, two practicum sections may be scheduled. The confirmation email will inform the student as to the dates and times of the seminar. This confirmation of placement site is sent to the student 21-30 days prior to the beginning of the semester they are registered to take a practicum.
The practicum guideline/application form is available on the School’s website.
Note: Only students who began the MLIS degree in Fall 2009 (September 2009) or after are required to submit an e-portfolio.
Yes. The required graduation e-portfolio must be placed on the portfolio server.
What do I put into my portfolio if I am taking a core class the semester I plan to graduate and we have not completed anything significant by the time the portfolio is due?
You can consult with the instructor about what an appropriate sample for the e-portfolio might be. You can also put together a review/essay of aspects of the course to date that you believe will be valuable for you as an LIS professional.
What are the requirements, in terms of content, for the evaluative statements that are to accompany each representative course item in the portfolio?
Students are to provide a reflective statement that indicates what the item represents in terms of personal and professional growth, its relationship to a professional knowledge base or its meaning as to why it was included in the portfolio.
At this time, certificate programs in SLIS (e.g. Archives certificate, IM certificate, etc. do not have any portfolio requirements which must be met.
Yes. They are eligible to be included as one of the three electives in the e-portfolio.
No. Extra work may not be added. There may only be one representative sample for each class. There may only be representative samples for 3 elective classes.
The e-portfolio, which resides on the portfolio server, is considered “submitted” as of the term deadline (e.g. November 1 (to graduate in December), March 1 (to graduate in May), May 1 (to graduate in June), and August 1 (to graduate in August)). As of those dates all work should be completed. Faculty review can begin any time following those dates.
At the beginning of each semester a request will be sent to all students. If you intend to graduate you will need to fill out a graduation form on Pipeline and to send an email to email@example.com indicating that you intend to graduate and complete your portfolio (This is only for students who began the MLIS degree in Fall 2009 or after.) The deadlines for these requirements are posted regularly on both the SLIS and WSU websites.
When a student does not pass the initial portfolio review an email is sent indicating the areas where improvement is needed and the deadline when the revisions must be made.
What if I have transfer courses or core courses that I took, not at Wayne State. Can these be included in the e-portfolio?
If the courses are approved substitutes for core classes, a representative sample may be included in the e-portfolio.
Can I talk about other courses in my reflective essay, even if I don’t have representative samples in the e-portfolio?
Yes. Any relevant course experiences or content may be included in the reflective essay.
The e-portfolio will only be available for one month after notification of passing. Students should remove their e-portfolio from the server within one month of notification that they have passed the e-portfolio. After that time the e-portfolio will be removed from the server by SLIS.
At some point after completing the e-portfolio, but before removing it from the server, we recommend that you download your e-portfolio to your own computer. Two videos are available which can assist in this process: https://connect.slis.wayne.edu/p51552637/
Yes, but the following conditions must be met.
- You must have written approval from every member of the group that they agree to using the group project in your portfolio. You may want to obtain these permissions while the group is still working together rather than after the course is over. These written agreements must be included in the e-portfolio
- You must indicate the name of every group member prominently on the group project.
- The group project must be removed from your e-portfolio immediately upon receiving your passing notification.
Students who complete their coursework Spring Term and wish to graduate at the end of June must complete and submit their e-portfolios by May 1.
Students who wish to graduate Summer Term or Spring/Summer Term must complete and submit their e-portfolios by August 1.
WSU Campus Information
For on-campus and off-campus housing please see the website for the Office of Housing and Residential Life.
See the website for Parking and Transportation Services.
See the campus map.
Students must have basic computing skills to be successful in the SLIS. Please visit Technology Requirements page for detailed computer competencies, computer requirements and Internet/email guidelines.
Microsoft Office is available as a free download for LIS students. It is highly recommended that you download this program using a computer with a high-speed Internet connection. To obtain your copy, please click here.
The job posting can be e-mailed to Megen Rehahn Drulia, faxed to (313) 577-7563 or mailed to the School of Library and Information Science, Wayne State University, 106 Kresge Library, Detroit, MI 48202.